Heating And Cooling
Heating and cooling include a wide range of end-use applications and technologies. In the buildings sector, it includes cooking, water heating, ambient heating, ambient cooling, and refrigeration. In industry, besides ambient heating and cooling, it also includes process heating — from low-temperature applications (e.g. in the food industry) to high-temperature applications (e.g. in the cement, iron and steel industries). Heating and cooling for residential, commercial and industrial purposes accounts for a large share of total final energy demand.
Action to reduce the impact of climate change is critical. The Paris Agreement sets a goal to limit the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to attempt to limit the increase to 1.5°C. Implicit in these goals is the need for a transition to a low-carbon energy sector, which accounts for two-thirds of global emissions. Renewable Energy, coupled with energy efficiency gains, can provide 90% of the CO2 emissions reductions needed by 2050.
Innovation And Technology
Innovations in renewable energy encompass all new approaches that help to overcome barriers and result in an accelerated deployment of renewables to support the energy transition. Innovative solutions to decarbonize the global energy sector require combining various policy instruments across the whole technology lifecycle, from R&D to market scale-up, as well as the development of new smart technologies, information technology, new types of financial and market instruments, business models and the engagement of new actors across the energy systems.
The energy transition is a pathway toward the transformation of the global energy sector from fossil-based to zero-carbon by the second half of this century. At its heart is the need to reduce energy-related CO2 emissions to limit climate change. Decarbonization of the energy sector requires urgent action on a global scale, and while a global energy transition is underway, further action is needed to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate the effects of climate change. Renewable energy and energy efficiency measures can potentially achieve 90% of the required carbon reductions.
Universal access to energy is a development imperative. Energy is a catalyst and enabler of development, and societies cannot develop without reliable, adequate and affordable energy services. Decades of national and international efforts have yielded impressive gains in access to modern energy. Yet, estimates suggest that under a business-as-usual scenario around 600 million people will still not have access to electricity by 2040..
The transport sector represents a third of global energy demand and 14% of global greenhouse gas emissions – it is also the sector with the lowest level of renewable energy use.
We are engaged in numerous activities and projects that support more use of renewables in the sector. The share of renewable energy in the transport sector is only around 3% at present; however, there is the potential to as much as quadruple the renewable energy share by 2030 and go even further by mid-decade.
A transformation in the transport sector energy use is required if the world is to meet its climate objectives, improve the sustainability of urban environments, improve energy security and reduce reliance on fossil fuels.
In the ongoing energy transition, the power sector has seen the most significant acceleration in renewable energy deployment. Although great progress has been achieved over the past decade, renewable energy deployment in the power sector is expected to continue apace, leading the transformation of the global energy system.
Solar and wind have seen aggressive cost decreases, which launched a virtuous cycle of: deployment; learning effects leading to cost-reduction; and further acceleration of deployment due to increased competitiveness. During the last decade, fossil fuel prices have been characterized by extreme volatility. However, this has not slowed renewable energy deployment in the power system, regardless of competitiveness being higher in certain years than others.
The large-scale deployment of renewables in the power sector has also triggered a wave of innovation in technology, business models and policy,